Batch Trials

Batch

Trials


Selected Biomasses


The largest unused technical potential in Germany, at almost 12 million tonnes dry matter per year, is forest residues. This is followed by grain straw with about 8.5 million tonnes dry weight and animal solid manure with almost 7 million tonnes dry weight. Overall, Germany has a greater available potential for non-woody residues while in Norway there are especially woody residues. The following residual materials were selected for further investigations:

  • Woody biomass: spruce trunk wood and bark from Norway, beech trunk wood and bark from Germany as well as apple wood
  • Herbaceous or straw-like residues: wheat and rapeseed straw
  • Digestate and other residues: maize fermentation residues and grape marc


    Spruce wood
    Spruce wood
    Spruce bark
    Spruce bark
    Beech wood
    Beech wood
    Beech bark
    Beech bark
    Apple wood
    Apple wood
    Wheat straw
    Wheat straw
    Rapeseed straw
    Rapeseed straw
    Grape marc
    Grape marc
    Digestate
    Digestate

    Biochars


    For the tests with the batch retort, a muffle furnace was used. In a metal retort, the raw material is placed on a perforated layer so that it can be passed by inert gas from below. After filling, the retort is hermetically sealed and put into the furnace. An exhaust gas section with condensate containers is then connected to separate the tar-containing pyrolysis oil. At the end post-combustion takes place to burn the gaseous components. In order to get an oxygen-free atmosphere inside the retort, it is already being flooded with nitrogen gas before the heating phase starts. The material is then heated to the desired target temperature. Once the target temperature has been reached, the temperature is maintained for 10 minutes to ensure complete degassing. Tho following pictures show the resulting biochar.

    Spruce wood
    Spruce wood
    Spruce bark
    Spruce bark
    Beech wood
    Beech wood
    Beech bark
    Beech bark
    Apple wood
    Apple wood
    Wheat straw
    Wheat straw
    Rapeseed straw
    Rapeseed straw
    Grape marc
    Grape marc
    Digestate
    Digestate